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In a world saturated with information, it is important to teach our students how to examine information with a critical eye. Since the beginning of the Internet and even before the Internet, librarians have been teaching users how to determine reliable information from unreliable information. This is not new. However, as people and technology have become more sophisticated, fake news has become more common. Fake news is a term coined by the media to refer to information that is published in order to deliberately deceive its readers into believing that the story is true. Teaching news literacy to our students and how to spot the signs of fake news is our job as educators.
Reputable Fact Checking Organizations
Publication Date: 2011-09-06
Amid the hand-wringing over the death of "true journalism" in the Internet Age-the din of bloggers, the echo chamber of Twitter, the predominance of Wikipedia-veteran journalists and media critics Bill Kovach and Tom Rosenstiel have written a pragmatic guide to navigating the twenty-first century media terrain. Yes, old authorities are being dismantled, new ones created, and the very nature of knowledge has changed. But seeking the truth remains the purpose of journalism. How do we discern what is reliable?Blur provides a road map, or more specifically, reveals the craft that has been used in newsrooms by the very best journalists for getting at the truth. In an age when the line between citizen and journalist is becoming increasingly unclear, Blur is a crucial guide for those who want to know what's true.
Broadcast Hysteria by
Publication Date: 2016-05-17
On the evening of October 30, 1938, radio listeners across the United States heard a startling report of a meteor strike in the New Jersey countryside. With sirens blaring in the background, announcers in the field described mysterious creatures, terrifying war machines, and thick clouds of poison gas moving toward New York City. As the invading force approached Manhattan, some listeners sat transfixed, while others ran to alert neighbors or to call the police. Some even fled their homes. Butthe hair-raising broadcast was not a real news bulletin-it was Orson Welles's adaptation of the H. G. Wells classicThe War of the Worlds. InBroadcast Hysteria, A. Brad Schwartz boldly retells the story of Welles's famed radio play and its impact. Did it really spawn a "wave of mass hysteria," asThe New York Timesreported? Schwartz is the first to examine the hundreds of letters sent to Orson Welles himself in the days after the broadcast, and his findings challenge the conventional wisdom. Few listeners believed an actual attack was under way. But even so, Schwartz shows that Welles's broadcast became a major scandal, prompting a different kind of mass panic as Americans debated the bewitching power of the radio and the country's vulnerability in a time of crisis. When the debate was over, Americanbroadcasting had changed for good, but not for the better. As Schwartz tells this story, we observe how an atmosphere of natural disaster and impending war permitted broadcasters to create shared live national experiences for the first time. We follow Orson Welles's rise to fame and watch his manic energy and artistic genius at work in the play's hurried yet innovative production. And we trace the present-day popularity of "fake news" back to its source in Welles's show and its many imitators. Schwartz's original research, gifted storytelling,and thoughtful analysis makeBroadcast Hysteriaa groundbreaking new look at a crucial but little-understood episode in American history.
Publication Date: 2017-11-14
Longlisted for the National Book Award for Nonfiction "There Kevin Young goes again, giving us books we greatly need, cleverly disguised as books we merely want. Unexpectedly essential."--Marlon James Award-winning poet and critic Kevin Young tours us through a rogue's gallery of hoaxers, plagiarists, forgers, and fakers--from the humbug of P. T. Barnum and Edgar Allan Poe to the unrepentant bunk of JT LeRoy and Donald J. Trump. Bunk traces the history of the hoax as a peculiarly American phenomenon, examining what motivates hucksters and makes the rest of us so gullible. Disturbingly, Young finds that fakery is woven from stereotype and suspicion, race being the most insidious American hoax of all. He chronicles how Barnum came to fame by displaying figures like Joice Heth, a black woman whom he pretended was the 161-year-old nursemaid to George Washington, and What Is It?, an African American man Barnum professed was a newly discovered missing link in evolution. Bunk then turns to the hoaxing of history and the ways that forgers, plagiarists, and journalistic fakers invent backstories and falsehoods to sell us lies about themselves and about the world in our own time, from pretend Native Americans Grey Owl and Nasdijj to the deadly imposture of Clark Rockefeller, from the made-up memoirs of James Frey to the identity theft of Rachel Dolezal. In this brilliant and timely work, Young asks what it means to live in a post-factual world of "truthiness" where everything is up for interpretation and everyone is subject to a pervasive cynicism that damages our ideas of reality, fact, and art.
A Consumer's Guide to Information by
Publication Date: 2016-12-29
A Consumer's Guide to Information teaches the reader how to apply basic critical thinking skills to making sense of the information avalanche brought to us by digital media. It is a guide to staying sane, not getting conned, and understanding more.
Fake News by
Publication Date: 2017-11-14
Fake News: Falsehood, fabrication and fantasy in journalism examines the causes and consequences of the #65533;fake news#65533; phenomenon now sweeping the world#65533;s media and political debates. Drawing on three decades of research and writing on journalism and news media, leading scholar Brian McNair engages with the fake news phenomenon in accessible, insightful language designed to bring clarity and context to a complex and fast-moving debate. McNair presents fake news not as a cultural issue in isolation but rather as arising from, and contributing to, significant political and social trends in twenty-first-century societies. Chapters identify the factors which have laid the groundwork for fake news#65533; explosive appearance at this moment in our globalised public sphere. These include the rise of relativism and the crisis of objectivity, the role of digital media platforms in the production and consumption of news and the growing drive to produce online content which attracts users and generates revenue. The book also considers the decline of trust in journalism and how the traditional left critique of #65533;dominant ideology#65533; and #65533;ruling elites#65533; in media has been appropriated by the alt-right, nationalists and populists all over the world. This book rejects the left#65533;right division in discussion of what is and is not #65533;fake news#65533;. Rather, it aims to provide students, teachers, journalists and general readers with the tools necessary to navigate the digital journalism landscape in the era of President Donald Trump and to filter out the #65533;fact#65533; from the #65533;fake#65533; in their news.
Fake News, Propaganda, and Plain Old Lies by
Publication Date: 2018-06-01
Are you overwhelmed at the amount, contradictions, and craziness of all the information coming at you in this age of social media and twenty-four-hour news cycles? Fake News, Propaganda, and Plain Old Lies will show you how to identify deceptive information as well as how to seek out the most trustworthy information in order to inform decision making in your personal, academic, professional, and civic lives. -Learn how to identify the alarm bells that signal untrustworthy information. -Understand how to tell when statistics can be trusted and when they are being used to deceive. -Inoculate yourself against the logical fallacies that can mislead even the brightest among us. Donald A. Barclay, a career librarian who has spent decades teaching university students to become information literate scholars and citizens, takes an objective, non-partisan approach to the complex and nuanced topic of sorting deceptive information from trustworthy information.
Fake News and Alternative Facts: Information Literacy in a Post-Truth Era by
Publication Date: 2018
Talk of so-called fake news, what it is and what it isn't, is front and center across the media landscape, with new calls for the public to acquire appropriate research and evaluation skills and become more information savvy. But none of this is new for librarians and information professionals, particularly for those who teach information literacy. Cooke, a Library Journal Mover & Shaker, believes that the current situation represents a golden opportunity for librarians to impart these important skills to patrons, regardless of their age or experience. In this Special Report, she demonstrates how. Readers will learn more about the rise of fake news, particularly those information behaviors that have perpetuated its spread; discover techniques to identify fake news, especially online; and explore methods to help library patrons of all ages think critically about information, teaching them ways to separate fact from fiction. Information literacy is a key skill for all news consumers, and this Special Report shows how librarians can make a difference by helping patrons identify misinformation.
Fighting Fake News! by
Publication Date: 2017-12-15
Educators have long struggled to teach students to be critical consumers of the information that they encounter. This struggle is exacerbated by the amount of information available thanks to the Internet and mobile devices. Students must learn how to determine whether or not the information they are accessing is reputable. Fighting Fake News! focuses on applying critical thinking skills in digital environments while also helping students and teachersto avoid information overload. According to a 2016 Pew Research report, we are now living in a world where 62% of people report that they get their "news" from social media. With the lessons and activities in this book, students will be challenged to look at the media they encounter daily (including Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, Instagram, Snapchat, Reddit, and more) to learn to deepen and extend their media literacy and critical thinking skills. Now more than ever, teachers need the instruction in Fighting Fake News! to teach students how to locate, evaluate, synthesize, and communicate information.
The Filter Bubble by
Publication Date: 2012-04-24
In December 2009, Google began customizing its search results for all users, and we entered a new era of personalization. With little notice or fanfare, our online experience is changing, as the websites we visit are increasingly tailoring themselves to us. In this engaging and visionary book, MoveOn.org board president Eli Pariser lays bare the personalization that is already taking place on every major website, from Facebook to AOL to ABC News. As Pariser reveals, this new trend is nothing short of an invisible revolution in how we consume information, one that will shape how we learn, what we know, and even how our democracy works. The race to collect as much personal data about us as possible, and to tailor our online experience accordingly, is now the defining battle for today's internet giants like Google, Facebook, Apple and Microsoft. Behind the scenes, a burgeoning industry of data companies is tracking our personal information to sell to advertisers, from our political leanings to the hiking boots we just browsed on Zappos. As a result, we will increasingly each live in our own, unique information universe--what Pariser calls "the filter bubble." We will receive mainly news that is pleasant, familiar and confirms our beliefs--and since these filters are invisible, we won't know what is being hidden from us. Our past interests will determine what we are exposed to in the future, leaving less room for the unexpected encounters that spark creativity, innovation and the democratic exchange of ideas. Drawing on interviews with both cyber-skeptics and cyber-optimists, from the co-founder of OK Cupid, an algorithmically-driven dating website, to one of the chief visionaries of U.S. information warfare, THE FILTER BUBBLE tells the story of how the Internet, a medium built around the open flow of ideas, is closing in on itself under the pressure of commerce and "monetization." It peeks behind the curtain at the server farms, algorithms, and geeky entrepreneurs that have given us this new reality, and investigates the consequences of corporate power in the digital age. THE FILTER BUBBLE reveals how personalization could undermine the internet's original purpose as an open platform for the spread of ideas, and leave us all in an isolated, echoing world. But it is not too late to change course. Pariser lays out a new vision for the web, one that embraces the benefits of technology without turning a blind eye to its negative consequences, and will ensure that the Internet lives up to its transformative promise.
News Literacy by
Publication Date: 2017-10-11
Our society faces international challenges from cyber attacks and dissemination of fake news with a goal to destabilize our society. Fake news can be used as a weapon with destructive effects as powerful as any military attack. Fake news can spread as fast as a wildfire carried on the winds of social media. Students and all citizens need to be prepared and informed of ways to quickly understand and distinguish real and fake news. Preventing the potential destructive effects of fake news is the purpose of this book. The focus is upon providing a resource for educators to develop "news literacy" skills of students in objectively evaluating the news.
The Smear by
Publication Date: 2017-06-27
New York Times Bestseller Ever wonder how politics turned into a take-no-prisoners blood sport? The New York Times bestselling author of Stonewalled pulls back the curtain on the shady world of opposition research and reveals the dirty tricks those in power use to influence your opinions. Behind most major political stories in the modern era, there is an agenda; an effort by opposition researchers, spin doctors, and outside interests to destroy an idea or a person. The tactic they use is the Smear. Every day, Americans are influenced by the Smear without knowing it. Paid forces cleverly shape virtually every image you cross. Maybe you read that Donald Trump is a racist misogynist, or saw someone on the news mocking the Bernie Sanders campaign. The trick of the Smear is that it is often based on some shred of truth, but these media-driven "hit pieces" are designed to obscure the truth. Success hinges on the Smear artist's ability to remain invisible; to make it seem as if their work is neither calculated nor scripted. It must appear to be precisely what it is not. Veteran journalist Sharyl Attkisson has witnessed this practice firsthand. After years of being pitched hit jobs and puff pieces, she's an expert at detecting Smear campaigns. Now, the hard-hitting investigative reporter shares her inside knowledge, revealing how the Smear takes shape and who its perpetrators are--including Clinton confidant Sidney Blumenthal and, most influential of all, "right-wing assassin turned left-wing assassin" (National Review) political operative David Brock and his Media Matters for America empire. Attkisson exposes the diabolical tactics of Smear artists, and their outrageous access to the biggest names in political media--operatives who are corrupting the political process, and discouraging widespread citizen involvement in our democracy.
The Truth Matters by
Publication Date: 2017-10-24
Distinguish fake news from reliable journalism with this clear and concise handbook by New York Times best-selling author Bruce Bartlett. Today's media and political landscapes are littered with untrustworthy sources and the dangerous concept of "fake news." This accessible guide helps you fight this deeply troubling trend and ensure that truth is not a permanent casualty. Written by Capitol Hill veteran and author Bruce Bartlett, The Truth Matters presents actionable tips and tricks for reading critically, judging sources, using fact-checking sites, avoiding confirmation bias, identifying trustworthy experts, and more.
Weaponized Lies by
Publication Date: 2017-03-07
New York Times bestselling author Daniel Levitin shows how to disarm these socially devastating inventions and get the American mind back on track. Here are the fundamental lessons in critical thinking that we need to know and share now. Investigating numerical misinformation, Daniel Levitin shows how mishandled statistics and graphs can give a grossly distorted perspective and lead us to terrible decisions. Wordy arguments on the other hand can easily be persuasive as they drift away from the facts in an appealing yet misguided way. The steps we can take to better evaluate news, advertisements, and reports are clearly detailed. Ultimately, Levitin turns to what underlies our ability to determine if something is true or false: the scientific method. He grapples with the limits of what we can and cannot know. Case studies are offered to demonstrate the applications of logical thinking to quite varied settings, spanning courtroom testimony, medical decision making, magic, modern physics, and conspiracy theories. This urgently needed book enables us to avoid the extremes of passive gullibility and cynical rejection.
Children's and YA Books on Fake News and News Literacy
Everything You Need to Know about Fake News and Propaganda by
Publication Date: 2017-12-15
These days it's hard to know what to believe. Is the news on television and the internet real or fake? How can you tell? This comprehensive guide helps readers sift through the many types of information out there. It gives guidelines for deciding which sources can be believed. Using a wealth of examples from recent news, politics, and science, it teaches readers how to distinguish fact from fiction and truth from lies. It gives suggestions on how to function in a posttruth world.
Fake News and Media Bias by
Publication Date: 2018-01-15
Although news outlets are meant to be impartial, they have never been perfectly unbiased. Another layer was added to the ongoing debate over the role of news media after the 2016 U.S. presidential election, when allegations of fake news surfaced. How can people know which news sources to trust? This volume explores the fake news phenomenon and offers readers tips on how to be critical of what they see reported. Full-color photographs, engaging sidebars, and discussion questions enhance the compelling text as it explores this crucial aspect of a democratic society.
The Fake News Phenomenon by
Publication Date: 2017-12-15
The 2016 US presidential election introduced a new term to the media lexicon. The Fake News Phenomenon examines the spread of bogus news sources, the reasons they exist, and the difference between media bias and "fake news." Readers are also provided with tips for how to discern the credibility of a news source. Easy-to-read text, vivid images, and helpful back matter give readers a clear look at this subject. Features include a table of contents, infographics, a glossary, additional resources, and an index. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Core Library is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.
Internet Journalism and Fake News by
Publication Date: 2018-01-15
Blogs, Twitter, Facebook, Tumblr, Wikipedia...there are endless sources for information on the Internet. But who can you trust to give you the truth? The catch-all of "fake news" has journalists, politicians, and information junkies alike worried about integrity, veracity, and legitimate sourcing. This collection of authoritative but diverse viewpoints tackles what constitutes fake news, where the term originated, and how it is often used to further politicize the media. Readers will also find discussions of propaganda and whether information disseminated by the American government is the only "real" news.
Sharing Posts by
Publication Date: 2017-08-01
The rise of the Internet has changed the way news is reported and consumed. One effect of these changes involves fake news¿false news items that are spread through e-mail and social media to discredit people and policies, most often in the realm of politics. This book examines the growth and influence of fake news in the United States and beyond.
Fake News is a Real Problem
Study: Most Students Cannot Distinguish Fake and Real News
How False News Can Spread
The Problem with Fake News
Here’s How Fake News Works (and How the Internet Can Stop It)
Photo Fact-Checking in the Digital Age
How Fake News Grows in a Post-Fact World
Τhe Truth About Fake News and How to Protect Against It
Breaking News Consumer's Handbook
Dissertations on Fake News
Use these tools to search for any image you think might have been manipulated:
Identify parts of an image that may have been modified or “photoshopped”.
TinEye Reverse Image Search
Upload or enter an image URL to the search bar and see a list of related sites. Has plug-ins for your browser.
Use these tools to verify the identity of people on social media:
- AnyWho: a free white pages directory with a reverse look-up function.
- AllAreaCodes: a tool that allows users to look up any name and address listed against a phone number. The service is free if the number is listed in the White Pages of phones throughout the US and Canada.
- BotOrNot: it checks the activity of a Twitter account and gives it a score based on how likely the account is a bot.
- Email Checker: a tool to check whether an email address exists.
- Facebook Graph Search: a social search engine that is integrated into Facebook. It provides a streamlined method to locate individuals. Journalists do not need to know the name of the person they are searching for; instead, they can search based on other known criteria such as location, occupation and age to find suspicious individuals.
- Facebook Graph Search Engine by Henk van Ess: one of the best search engines to track an individual and find hidden information about the individuals shared on Facebook. Not only this tool allows one to find out the photos he/she is tagged and/or liked, but also to track where the person checked in last time including hotels, restaurants, and other locations.
- GeoSocial Footprint: a website where one can track the users’ location “footprint” created from GPS enabled tweets, social check-ins, natural language location searching (geocoding) and profile harvesting.
- Linkedin: through work history and connections Linkedin can provide additional means to track an individual down and verify the person's identity or story. It is one of the most useful tools to get professional information about an individual.
- Numberway: a free directory of international phone books.
- Person Finder: one of the most well-known open source databanks for individuals to post and search for the status of people affected during disaster. Whenever a large scale disaster happens, the Google Crisis Team sets up a person finder. It is however activated during/after a humanitarian disaster.
- Pipl.com: searches for an individual’s Internet footprint and can help identify through multiple social media accounts, public records and contact details.
- Reverse Phone Number Look-up: search US Phone Numbers to know who is calling you. It is handy when one is in direct contact with the source.
- Spokeo: a people search engine that can find individuals by name, email, phone or username. Results are merged into a profile showing gender and age, contact details, occupation, education, marital status, family background, economic profile and photos.
- Skypegrab: with a skype handle, one can track IP address and user location.
- Storyful MultiSearch Extension: simple and quick solution to search accounts associated with a specific handle from one social platform to another.
- WebMii: the tool searches for weblinks that match an individual’s name, or can identify unspecified individuals by keyword. It gives a web visibility score which can be used to identify fake profiles.
- Who.is: it finds the registered users of a domain name and details the date of registration, location and contact details of the registrant or assignee. There is also a chrome extension and there is also a feature to carry out a historical search.
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